On May 31, 1955, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka II.
One year after the landmark Brown v. Board decision which declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional, the Supreme Court took up the case again. This time the focus was on the implementation of desegregation
The original Brown v. Board grew out of a class action suit filed in Topeka, Kansas, by thirteen African American parents on behalf of their children. The District Court had ruled in favor of the Board of Education, citing Plessy v. Ferguson. When it was appealed to the Supreme Court, Brown v. Board was combined with four other cases from other jurisdictions.
After handing down the 1954 decision, the Supreme Court planned to hear arguments during the following court session regarding the implementation. Because the Brown v. Board case was actually a compilation of several cases from different parts of the US, the Supreme Court was faced with crafting a ruling which would apply to a variety of situations.
In the arguments before the court in April 1955, the NAACP argued for immediate desegregation while the states argued for delays.
The unanimous decision, authored by Chief Justice Earl Warren, employed the now-famous (or infamous?) phrase that the states should desegregate “with all deliberate speed.”
In making the ruling, the US Supreme Court shifted the decision-making to local school districts and lower-level federal courts. The rationale was that those entities closest to the unique situation of each locality would be best equipped to handle the distinct needs of those schools and communities.
The Supreme Court did make it clear that all school systems must immediately starting moving toward racial desegregation. But again failed to provide any guideposts as to what that meant.
In anticipation of the Supreme Court’s Brown II ruling, earlier in May the Little Rock School Board had adopted a draft of what became known as the “Blossom Plan” (named for the superintendent, Virgil Blossom). The thought process seems to have been that if the LRSD had a plan in place prior to a Supreme Court decision, it might buy it more time had the court ruled that things had to happen immediately.
The Blossom Plan called for phased integration to start at the senior high level. It anticipated the new Hall High School as having an attendance zone in addition to zones for Central and Mann high schools. But the way the zones were created, the only school which would be integrated at first would be Central High. The junior highs and elementary schools would be integrated later.
With no immediate remedy from the US Supreme Court, the NAACP – both nationally and locally – had little recourse other than expressing their unhappiness continuing to verbally protest the lack of immediate desegregation. (This is an oversimplification of the NAACP efforts, but points out that their options were very limited.)